Franklin, known as the Fluorescent Mineral Capital of the World, is located over a rich ore body containing more than 150 minerals, many of them fluorescent and 25 of which are found no where else on earth. Settled in the 1600s, the village known as Franklin Furnace developed near iron mines and iron smelting operations located along the Wallkill River. In the early 1800s zinc deposits in the area began to be developed commercially. For most of the century many small companies mined zinc and iron in the Franklin area. In 1897 all zinc mining efforts merged into the New Jersey Zinc Company. The Zinc company was a major controlling factor in the development of Franklin. Immigrants from Russia, England, Hungary and Poland joined the work force at the mine. The population, 500 in 1897, swelled to 3000 by 1913 when the area incorporated as the Borough of Franklin.